Fortunately, the golden lion tamarin has been the subject of a large-scale, determined conservation effort. A captive breeding programme aims to maintain a zoo population of 500 individuals, and since 1984, captive-bred individuals have been re-introduced to the wild (6) (10). Furthermore, released individuals have successfully reared young in the wild (6). A huge conservation education programme in Brazil has raised the profile of the golden lion tamarin, and the species is now widely regarded with pride as a national symbol of conservation (10). In 1980, the wild population had reached an all time low of less than 100 individuals (11), but by 2000 this had increased to 1000, 424 of which were re-introduced from captive stock (12). Despite these efforts, the species still requires protection and continued conservation efforts if it is to evade extinction. (5).