Golden-gilled bolete (Phylloporus pelletieri)
|Size||Cap diameter: 2 – 8 cm (2)|
Stem (stipe) height: 2 – 6 cm (2)
Short-listed for inclusion in the Bern Convention by the European Council for Conservation of Fungi (ECCF), and included on the Red Lists of 12 European countries (3).
The golden-gilled bolete is an unusual member of the Boletales, as the underside of the cap bears gill-like structures (known as ‘lamellae’) rather than the more usual pores. The reddish, domed cap is smooth with a velvety texture, whilst the gills are bright yellow (4). The stem supporting the cap is also yellow with a red-brown veil (5).
WARNING: many species of fungus are poisonous or contain chemicals that can cause sickness. Never pick and eat any species of fungus that you cannot positively recognise or are unsure about. Some species are deadly poisonous and can cause death within a few hours if swallowed.
Although rare, the golden-gilled bolete has a widespread distribution in Europe and reaches into Asia (6).
Inhabits broadleaved or coniferous forests in montane or sub-alpine regions, where it is associated with acidic or sandy soils (6).
The golden-gilled bolete forms mycorrhizal relationships with broadleaved trees such as beech and coniferous trees such as fir or pine (6). The fruiting bodies are produced in summer and autumn (6).
Fungi are an enormous group of organisms that are so distinctive from both plants and animals that they are placed in their own kingdom. The main body of the fungus is composed of a multitude of microscopic threads (known as ‘hyphae’) which are located within the substrate (4). The fruiting body (such as the more familiar mushroom or toadstool) is produced to release spores and thus allows reproduction to occur. Fungi feed by absorbing nutrients from their surroundings.
This species is threatened by air pollution and forestry plantations, which can destroy its natural habitat (6).
The golden-gilled bolete is a candidate species for listing in Appendix I of the Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats, otherwise known as the Bern Convention (3) (7). Other conservation recommendations include the mapping of existing sites and a reduction in air pollution, together with restrictions on forestry practice at known locations (6).
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- Mycorrhizal: a fungus that forms a close physical association with the roots of a plant, this relationship is mutually beneficial.
- Spores: microscopic particles involved in both dispersal and reproduction. They comprise a single or group of unspecialised cells and do not contain an embryo, as do seeds.
- National Biodiversity Network, Species Dictionary (July, 2003) http://www.nhm.ac.uk/nbn/
- Courtecuisse, R. (1999) Mushrooms of Britain and Europe. Harper Collins, London.
- The distribution, status and habitat requirement of the 33 fungal candidates for listing in Appendix I of the Bern Convention. (June 2003) http://www.artdata.slu.se/Bern_Fungi/Bern_Fungi.htm
- Pegler, D. & Spooner, B. (1992) The Mushroom Identifier. Apple Press, London.
- Fungi of Poland (July, 2003) http://www.grzyby.pl/index.html
- European Council for Conservation of Fungi (ECCF) (2001) Datasheets of threatened mushrooms of Europe, candidates for listing in Appendix I of the Convention. Bern Convention Standing Committee. http://www.nature.coe.int/CP21/tpvs34e.htm
- Bern Convention (June, 2003) http://www.nature.coe.int/english/cadres/bern.htm