Gila monster (Heloderma suspectum)
|French:||Lézard perlé, Monstre de gila|
|Spanish:||Monstruo de Gila|
|Size||Length: 38 - 58 cm (2)|
Classified as Near Threatened (NT) on the IUCN Red List (1).
The Gila monster is the largest lizard in the United States (3), and one of the few species of venomous lizard in the world (4) (5). It has a stocky body with a large head and a short, fat tail (6). The skin consists of many round, bony scales, a feature that was common amongst the dinosaurs but is unusual in today's reptiles (3). Gila monsters have a striking bright pink and black colouration (6) and the two subspecies can be distinguished by their different patterns; the banded Gila monster (Heloderma suspectum cinctum) has a band of light markings along the back whilst in the reticulated Gila monster (H. s. suspectum) these light marks are joined in a network (3). With their venomous bite and elusive nature, these lizards have inspired many myths over the centuries (3).
The majority of the Gila monster's range is in western and southern Arizona, south to southern Sonora in Mexico, although populations are also found in restricted areas of California, Nevada, Utah and New Mexico (6). Of the subspecies, the banded Gila monster occupies the northern extent of the species' range (3). The name 'Gila monster' is derived from the Gila River Basin in Arizona, part of this species' range (4).
Inhabits dry desert scrub and rocky mountain foothills up to 1,500 metres above sea level (3).
As an adaptation to their harsh desert environment, Gila monsters spend a large proportion of their time underground in burrows, hibernating during the winter and sheltering from the midday sun in the scorching summer months. The lizards emerge from hibernation in spring and the majority of their activity occurs in the following three-month period (3). Mating may takes place from April to June (7); males 'wrestle' to assert dominance (3). Females then lay their clutch of up to 12 eggs in late June or August (6). Eggs are laid in depressions dug into the soil and unusually remain incubating underground throughout the winter, hatching the following spring (4).
In springtime, Gila monsters are active during the day, although they are mainly above ground in the morning and late afternoon to avoid the midday heat (3). These lizards feed on eggs, young birds and rodents, as well as lizards; juveniles are able to consume over 50% of their body weight at one time (4). Gila monsters are able to survive for months without food as they store fat in their particularly large tail (3). The infamous venomous bite of the Gila monster is used as a defensive measure rather than to attack prey. If threatened, these lizards will back away hissing with their mouth open, and if provoked they attack surprisingly quickly with a bite that can be extremely painful to humans, although it is rarely life-threatening (6).
Much of the bushland of the Gila monster's habitat has been cleared for agriculture and remaining populations are isolated in the resulting fragments that persist (2). Urban development and roads have also encroached on their habitat and many monsters are killed by common feral, or pet, species such as domestic cats and dogs (8). Some specimens are also still illegally collected for the pet trade (9).
Gila monsters are protected throughout their range, first receiving protection in 1952 in Arizona when they were the first venomous reptiles to receive such legislation (6). Over 300 individuals exist in captivity in the United States (8), and with greater understanding of these elusive lizards many of the common myths and superstitions around them have been surmounted (3). It is hoped that conservation measures will allow this a colourful desert-dweller to persist despite its depleted habitat.
For more information on the Gila monster see:
- Dr Seward’s Gila Monster Site
- Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum
Authenticated (15/7/03) by Kevin Buley. Curator of Lower Vertebrates and Invertebrates, Chester Zoo.
- Hibernating: a winter survival strategy characteristic of some mammals in which an animal's metabolic rate slows down and a state of deep sleep is attained. Whilst hibernating, animals survive on stored reserves of fat that they have accumulated in summer. In insects, the correct term for hibernation is 'diapause', a temporary pause in development and growth. Any stage of the lifecycle (eggs, larvae, pupae or adults) may enter diapause, which is typically associated with winter.
- Subspecies: a population usually restricted to a geographical area that differs from other populations of the same species, but not to the extent of being classified as a separate species.
IUCN Red List (September, 2007)
American Museum of Natural History (April, 2003)
Dr Seward's Gila Monster Site (April, 2003)
Gila Monster (April, 2003)
- Fry, B.G., Vidal, N., Norman, J.A., Vonk, F.J., Scheib, H., Ramjan, S.F., Kuruppu, S., Fung, K., Hedges, S.B., Richardson, M.K., Hodgson, W.C., Ignjatovic, V., Summerhayes, R. and Kochva, E. (2006) Early evolution of the venom system in lizards and snakes. Nature, 439: 584 - 588.
Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum (April, 2003)
- Buley, K. (2003) Pers. comm.
Sedgwick County Zoo (April, 2003)
Tucson Herpetological Society (April, 2003)