The Galapagos penguin displays a great number of unique behavioural adaptations that allow it to inhabit the Galapagos Islands and keep cool on land. These include standing with the flippers extended to aid heat loss, as well as panting and seeking shade. When standing on land, it tends to adopt a strange hunched posture, which shades the bare feet, a major site of heat loss (4).
The flexibility of breeding in the Galapagos penguin allows it to take advantage of times of high food abundance. When the surface temperature of the sea becomes high, the water becomes very poor in nutrients resulting in food shortages. During these periods, known as El Nino Southern Oscillations (ENSO), the Galapagos penguin will delay breeding completely until food resources improve (4).
Pair bonds are for life, enabling the Galapagos penguin to begin breeding quickly when conditions improve. The bond is reinforced by mutual preening and bill tapping. Two eggs are produced at an interval of around four days. Incubation takes up to 40 days and is shared by the male and female. After 30 days, the chicks develop plumage to protect them from the sun, and the chicks fledge after 65 days (4).