Saturday 15 June
Floreana coral (Tubastraea floreana)
Floreana coral fact file
- Find out more
- Print factsheet
Floreana coral description
An uncommon species of the Galápagos, Floreana coral is a scleractinian coral, meaning that it is a ‘hard’ coral with a limestone skeleton (3). The polyps of Floreana coral are bright pink in the water, and dark red-black when dry (4).Top
Floreana coral biology
Floreana coral is an azooxanthellate coral, meaning that this species does not have zooxanthellae, the algae that live inside the tissues of some corals and provide the coral with food (3). Corals without zooxanthellae instead feed on zooplankton, capturing these tiny aquatic animals in their outstretched tentacles (5).Top
Floreana coral range
Found only in the Galápagos, this rare coral species was once known from around the islands of Floreana, Isabela, Pinzón and Santiago, and the islets of Gardner and Cousins (1). However, since 1983, the Floreana coral has only been sighted at Cousins Rocks and Gardner Islet (1).Top
Floreana coral habitat
Floreana coral can be found on the ceilings of caves, ledges and overhanging rocks, between depths of 2 and 46 metres (1).Top
Floreana coral statusTop
Floreana coral threats
Thought to once have been fairly widespread around the Galápagos Islands, since the El Niño event of 1982-83, this coral has only been found at Cousins Rocks and Gardner Islet, and despite searches specifically for this species, Floreana coral has not been seen at Cousins Rocks since 2001 (1). This suggests that Floreana coral populations suffered mortalities as a result of the El Niño event, and it is therefore likely that any other alterations to the water temperatures surrounding the Galápagos Islands, such as global climate change, will also threaten this coral (1).Top
Floreana coral conservation
The unique biodiversity of the Galápagos Islands and the surrounding waters is recognised and valued, and thus the region is protected by being designated a Marine Reserve and World Heritage Site (1). Floreana coral is also included in Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES), meaning that any international trade in this species should be carefully regulated (2). Unfortunately, neither of these measures protects this Critically Endangered coral from the threats of natural, or man-induced, climate change.Top
Find out more
For further information on conservation in the Galápagos see:
- Charles Darwin Foundation:
AuthenticationThis information is awaiting authentication by a species expert, and will be updated as soon as possible. If you are able to help please contact: firstname.lastname@example.orgTop
- El Niño
- A natural phenomenon that happens every 4 to 12 years, and lasts for several months, when upwelling of cold, nutrient-rich water does not occur. This causes the warming of ocean surface water off the western coast of South America and causes die-offs of plankton and fish. It also affects Pacific jet stream winds, altering storm tracks and creating unusual weather patterns in various parts of the world.
- The typically sedentary soft-bodied components of cnidaria, a group of simple aquatic animals including the sea anemones, corals and jellyfish. Each polyp comprises a trunk that is fixed at the base, and a mouth that is placed at the opposite end of the trunk and is surrounded by tentacles.
- Tiny aquatic animals that drift with currents or swim weakly in water.
- IUCN Red List (September, 2007)
- CITES (July, 2008)
- Veron, J. (2000) Corals of the World. Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville, Australia.
- Glynn, P.W. and Wellington, G.M. (1983) Corals and Coral Reefs of the Galapagos Islands. University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, California.
- Barnes, R.D. (1987) Invertebrate Zoology. Fifth Edition. Saunders College Publishing, US.
More »Related species
Play the Team WILD game
MyARKive offers the scrapbook feature to signed-up members, allowing you to organize your favourite ARKive images and videos and share them with friends.
Terms and Conditions of Use of Materials
Copyright in this website and materials contained on this website (Material) belongs to Wildscreen or its licensors.
Visitors to this website (End Users) are entitled to:
- view the contents of, and Material on, the website;
- download and retain copies of the Material on their personal systems in digital form in low resolution for their own personal use;
- teachers, lecturers and students may incorporate the Material in their educational material (including, but not limited to, their lesson plans, presentations, worksheets and projects) in hard copy and digital format for use within a registered educational establishment, provided that the integrity of the Material is maintained and that copyright ownership and authorship is appropriately acknowledged by the End User.
End Users shall not copy or otherwise extract, alter or manipulate Material other than as permitted in these Terms and Conditions of Use of Materials.
Additional use of flagged material
Green flagged material
Certain Material on this website (Licence 4 Material) displays a green flag next to the Material and is available for not-for-profit conservation or educational use. This material may be used by End Users, who are individuals or organisations that are in our opinion not-for-profit, for their not-for-profit conservation or not-for-profit educational purposes. Low resolution, watermarked images may be copied from this website by such End Users for such purposes. If you require high resolution or non-watermarked versions of the Material, please contact Wildscreen with details of your proposed use.
Creative commons material
Certain Material on this website has been licensed to Wildscreen under a Creative Commons Licence. These images are clearly marked with the Creative Commons buttons and may be used by End Users only in the way allowed by the specific Creative Commons Licence under which they have been submitted. Please see http://creativecommons.org for details.
Any other use
Please contact the copyright owners directly (copyright and contact details are shown for each media item) to negotiate terms and conditions for any use of Material other than those expressly permitted above. Please note that many of the contributors to ARKive are commercial operators and may request a fee for such use.
Save as permitted above, no person or organisation is permitted to incorporate any copyright material from this website into any other work or publication in any format (this includes but is not limited to: websites, Apps, CDs, DVDs, intranets, extranets, signage, digital communications or on printed materials for external or other distribution). Use of the Material for promotional, administrative or for-profit purposes is not permitted.