Restricted to just a single river, the European dace is primarily threatened by the loss of its habitat. Although the Evrotas River naturally dries up during periods of drought, water extraction for agriculture has exacerbated this, resulting in fish being stranded in stagnant pools of water with low oxygen concentration and high temperatures (1) (6). This was most severe in 2007 when a prolonged drought resulted in around 80 percent of the main river course drying up (6). As the European dace inhabits fast flowing, cold waters, mass fish mortality has been observed in areas where its habitat has been degraded in such a way (5). Fish communities within the Evrotas River have also suffered from pollution, with lowland parts of the river, often near urban areas, being the most severely effected (1) (6).