Turquoise meltpool beside pressure ridge in the polar pack ice, Arctic Ocean


The stunning, icy landscapes and charismatic wildlife of the Arctic region have captured the imaginations of humans for centuries. The word ‘Arctic’ comes from the Greek word for bear, ‘arctos’, and it is named after the Great Bear (Ursa Major) and Little Bear (Ursa Minor) constellations that appear in the Arctic sky all year round. (1).

The Arctic is not a country or continent, but rather a region at the extreme north of the planet. Roughly, it includes the Arctic Ocean (the world’s smallest ocean) and the surrounding seas, as well as the world’s...