The Cuban boa is largely nocturnal (6), and its diet consists of birds, rodents, bats and lizards (Cyclura species) (3). It has been known to prey on small snakes, such as the woodsnake (Tropidophis melanurus). The juvenile tends to feed on small lizards in the Anolis genus that are found in trees. The Cuban boa is easily agitated and will habitually strike (3).
It is a skilful predator and prey, such as rodents, are ambushed on the ground. Remarkably, it is also able to snatch bats from the air, as they enter or exit roosting caves (3) (5) (6). Heat-sensing pits in crevices on the mouth detect temperature changes as low as 0.10 degrees Celsius, enabling the Cuban boa to detect warm-blooded prey in the dark (6). Prey is initially seized by the Cuban boa with its teeth, and it then coils its body around the prey and squeezes, eventually causing suffocation of the prey (7).
Like other boas, the Cuban boa gives birth to live young, as opposed to laying eggs (6) (7). The embryos remain in a soft membrane within the female, and the gestation period is approximately four months (7). Shortly before birth, the young break out of the membrane and the female Cuban boa then gives birth to between one and seven offspring (3). The young measure approximately 40 centimetres in length, and are independent of any parental care from birth (7).