Correndera pipit (Anthus correndera)
|Size||Length: 14-16 cm (2)|
Classified as Least Concern (LC) on the IUCN Red List (1).
With its streaked blackish and ochraceous upperparts, the Correndera pipit is the most boldly patterned of the South American pipits (3). A pair of whitish stripes are usually evident, if not conspicuous, running down the back, while the tail is dusky with whitish edges. Underneath, the breast, belly and flanks are buffy white, with bold black spots and streaks (2) (3). In common with all pipits, the bill is slender, and in adaptation to its terrestrial lifestyle, the hindclaw is notably long (3). The sexes are similar in appearance, but five subspecies are distinguished by slight differences in plumage colouration (2).
The Correndera pipit has a large range comprising southern Peru, western Bolivia, Chile, Uruguay, Paraguay, southeast Brazil and the Falkland Islands (2) (3). The subspecies Anthus correndera calcaratus occurs in the mountains of Peru; A. c. catamarcae occupies northern Chile, southwest Bolivia and northwest Argentina; A. c. correndera is found in southern Paraguay, northern Argentina, Uruguay, and extreme southeast Brazil; A. c. chilensis inhabits Chile and southern Argentina; and A. c. grayi is restricted to the Falkland Islands (2).
Found in pastures, fields, puna grasslands, wetland edges and roadside verges (2) (3). In the north (A. c. correndera and A. c. calcaratus), it is mostly found from 2,500 to 4,450 metres above sea level, but elsewhere it occurs from sea-level to around 1,250 metres (2).
Little is known about the feeding habits of the Correndera pipit, but like all South American pipits, it forages mainly on the ground, walking and running around in a distinctive fashion (2) (3). Insects and other invertebrates comprise the main part of its diet, but it probably also takes seeds (2). Breeding occurs from June to December, with males performing a display flight that involves repeatedly rising 20 to 40 metres into the air, where it hovers and sings, before gliding back down to earth (2) (3). The shallow nest is made from grass and finer material such as hair, and concealed in a depression in the ground. The average clutch size comprises two to four eggs. In parts of its range, the Correndera pipit is resident year round, but in the central and southern areas, many migrate north after breeding, whilst those in the extreme south routinely migrate north in April and return south in September (2).
The Correndera pipit is common, widespread and unlikely to be under significant threat over most of its range in the foreseeable future (2) (4).
There are no known conservation measures in place for the Correndera pipit.
For information on the conservation of birds across the Americas, see:
- American Bird Conservancy:
For more information on this and other bird species please see:
- BirdLife International:
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- Puna: A high-elevation grassland found throughout the Andes mountains, in South America.
- Subspecies: a population usually restricted to a geographical area that differs from other populations of the same species, but not to the extent of being classified as a separate species.
IUCN Red List (June, 2009)
- del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A. and Sargatal, J. (2004) Handbook of the Birds of the World. Volume 9: Cotingas to Pipits and Wagtails. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
- Ridgely, R.S. and Tudor, G. (1989) The Birds of South America, Volume I: The Oscine Passerines: Jays, Swallows, Wrens, Thrushes and Allies, Vireos, Wood-warblers, Tanagers, Icterids and Finches. The University of Texas Press, Austin.
BirdLife International (June, 2009)