Cornish path moss (Ditrichum cornubicum)

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Cornish path moss
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Cornish path moss fact file

Cornish path moss description

KingdomPlantae
PhylumBryophyta
ClassBryopsida
OrderDicranales
FamilyDitrichaceae
GenusDitrichum

The extremely rare Cornish path moss (Ditrichum cornubicum) was first discovered in 1963 and only identified as a distinct species in 1976. It appears as dull-green patches or as scattered shoots on compacted loamy soil, or soils associated with copper contaminated mine spoil. Only male plants have been found.

Size
Plant size: 1 - 5 mm
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Cornish path moss biology

Mosses, hornworts and liverworts form a group of plants called bryophytes. Bryophytes lack many of the more complex structures of the higher plants, such as a vascular system, and flowers. They do not have roots, instead they have structures called ‘rhizoids’ which absorb water and anchor the plant to the substrate. All bryophytes have an interesting life cycle consisting of two main parts, called the gametophyte and sporophyte generations. Plants that are in the gametophyte stage can reproduce sexually. Male organs (antheridia) produce male sex cells or gametes called antherozoids, which actually move to the female sex organs (archegonia) through water droplets. Fertilisation occurs and a plant develops called a ‘sporophyte’, which remains attached to the plant. The sporophyte releases spores from within a capsule; the spores disperse and develop into a new gametophyte stage plant.

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Cornish path moss range

Cornish path moss has, so far, only been recorded in the British Isles, originally, from three sites. It is now restricted to just two. It is endemic to the UK.

You can view distribution information for this species at the National Biodiversity Network Gateway.
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Cornish path moss habitat

This plant is one of the few species which are tolerant of copper minerals in the concentrations found at old copper mines. Cornish path moss is termed an 'early colonist', meaning it is one of the first plants to appear on bare ground, but it can be shaded out by taller plants when they, in turn, become established.

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Cornish path moss status

Cornish path moss is classifed as Endangered (EN) on the IUCN Red List (1).

IUCN Red List species status – Endangered

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Cornish path moss threats

Although the reasons for the decline of this species are not fully understood, it is believed that accidental loss from trampling and vehicle movements, and enrichment of the ground by sheep dung has resulted in the Cornish path moss's decrease at one of its sites. Its disappearance from a site in West Cornwall was due to the surfacing of a lay-by.

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Cornish path moss conservation

This species' rarity and the precarious state of its habitat meant that it was included in the original UK Biodiversity Action Plans for species, and it is also listed in English Nature's Species Recovery Programme (SRP). Initial work on conserving the Cornish path moss concentrated on maintaining the plant's only known site, and in 1996 it was designated a Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI). With the moss's sites now under protection, a management plan was produced and an ex-situ conservation programme was begun to propagate the moss, and allow for possible introduction to other suitable sites. This was part of the bryophyte conservation programme, run by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, and should provide an insurance safeguard against the extinction of this species in the wild. However, the most important issue is to ensure that the natural populations remain viable, and the major conservation efforts are being directed towards this goal.

Part of the plan for conserving the Cornish path moss will involve the sharing of knowledge gained in the study of this plant. All over the globe, species like this rare moss are threatened with extinction. Knowledge gained by the research into why a plant or animal is rare or becomes endangered, is of immense importance in learning how to manage our planet in a more sustainable way. The Cornish path moss project is just a small part of a global programme to maintain and enhance the Biodiversity of planet Earth.

The UK Biodiversity Action Plan for this species is available at UK BAP.
There may be further information about this species available via the National Biodiversity Network Gateway.
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Find out more

Find out more on the bryophyte conservation programme:

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Authentication

Information supplied by English Nature.

http://www.english-nature.org.uk

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Glossary

Endemic
A species or taxonomic group that is only found in one particular country or geographic area.
Ex-situ
Measures to conserve a species or habitat that occur outside of the natural range of the species. E.g. in zoos or botanical gardens.
Fertilisation
The fusion of gametes (male and female reproductive cells) to produce an embryo, which grows into a new individual.
Gametophyte
A life cycle stage in plants, which has one set of chromosomes (threads of DNA protein) in the cell nucleus (a condition known as ‘haploid’), which arises from a spore (which is also haploid). Sex cells (gametes) are produced during the gametophyte stage. This is the dominant life-cycle stage in liverworts and mosses.
Rhizoids
Thread-like structures that help to anchor the plant to the substrate, and absorb minerals and water. In liverworts they consist of a single cell, in mosses they are multi-cellular.
Spores
Microscopic particles involved in both dispersal and reproduction. They comprise a single or group of unspecialised cells and do not contain an embryo, as do seeds.
Sporophyte
The stage of a plant life cycle that produces spores (microscopic particles used in dispersal and reproduction). This stage is diploid (in the cell nucleus there are two sets of chromosomes - threads of DNA protein) and is dominant in ‘higher’ plants such as flowering plants.
Vascular system
In plants, the system that allows water and nutrients to move around.
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References

  1. IUCN Red List (April, 2011)
    http://www.iucnredlist.org/
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Image credit

Cornish path moss  
Cornish path moss

© British Bryological Society / National Museum & Gallery, Cardiff

National Museum & Gallery, Cardiff
Cathays Park
Cardiff
CF10 3NP
United Kingdom
biosyb@nmgw.ac.uk
http://www.nmgw.ac.uk/nmgc/

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