Common European earwig (Forficula auricularia)

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Common European earwig
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Common European earwig fact file

Common European earwig description

KingdomAnimalia
PhylumArthropoda
ClassInsecta
OrderDermaptera
FamilyForficulidae
GenusForficula (1)

The earwig is a very common insect, and one that often triggers repulsion due to the unfounded belief that they enter people's ears and burrow into their brains. Their name derives from the Old English word earwicga, which means 'ear creature' (3); the specific part of the scientific name of this species, auricularia also reflects the association with ears (4). One largely unknown explanation for these names is that the hindwings, which are neatly folded concertina fashion below the short, leathery forewings are the shape of human ears, and 'earwig' may be a corruption of 'ear wing' (3). The common European earwig is reddish brown in colour, with a flattened and elongate body, and slender, beaded antennae. An obvious feature of earwigs is the pair of 'pincers' or forceps at the tip of the flexible abdomen. Both sexes have these pincers; in males they are large and very curved, whereas in females they are straight (3). Larvae or 'nymphs' are similar to adults in appearance, but their wings are either absent or small (3).

Size
Length: 13 mm (2)
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Common European earwig biology

The earwig is a fascinating species, and is one of the few non-social insects to show dedicated parental care of offspring. After mating, the male departs (3) and the female lays 50-90 white eggs in a nest the ground (5). During the winter she defends the eggs against predators and keeps them free of mould by licking them (3). After the larvae (nymphs) hatch, the female cares for them during the early stages. Earwigs undergo a type of development known as incomplete metamorphosis, in which the nymphs progress through a series of moults. The stages between moults are known as 'instars'. The female will have lost her maternal instinct when the nymphs reach their second instar; if they have not left the nest by this time they risk being eaten by their mother (3).

Earwigs are typically at their most active at night, when they emerge from under refuges such as log piles, stones and crevices in fences to feed on other insects, detritus, fruit and plant matter (5). They fly very rarely, and can be pests, causing damage to flowers (3).

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Common European earwig range

The earwig is found throughout Europe and has been introduced to the United States of America (5). In Britain, this species is very common (1).

You can view distribution information for this species at the National Biodiversity Network Gateway.
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Common European earwig habitat

Found in a wide range of habitats and is common in gardens (3).

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Common European earwig status

Widespread and often common (3).

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Common European earwig threats

Not threatened at present.

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Common European earwig conservation

Conservation action has not been targeted at this species.

There may be further information about this species available via the National Biodiversity Network Gateway.
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Find out more

For more on invertebrates and their conservation see Buglife, the Invertebrate Conservation Trust at:
http://www.buglife.org.uk/

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Authentication

This information is awaiting authentication by a species expert, and will be updated as soon as possible. If you are able to help please contact: arkive@wildscreen.org.uk
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Glossary

Abdomen
In arthropods (crustaceans, insects and arachnids) the abdomen is the hind region of the body, which is usually segmented to a degree. In crustacea (e.g. crabs) the limbs attach to the abdomen; in insects the limbs are attached to the thorax (the part of the body nearest to the head) and not the abdomen. In vertebrates the abdomen is the part of the body that contains the internal organs (except the heart and lungs).
Antennae
Pair of sensory structures on the head of invertebrates.
Incomplete metamorphosis
Type of insect development (also known as hemimetabolous development) in which the adult form is reached via a series of moults. The larva (nymph) resembles a miniature wingless adult; the wings develop externally as the nymph grows.
Larvae
Stage in an animal's lifecycle after it hatches from the egg. Larvae are typically very different in appearance to adults; they are able to feed and move around but usually are unable to reproduce.
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References

  1. National Biodiversity Network Species Dictionary (Jan 2003): http://www.nhm.ac.uk/nbn/
  2. Sterry, P. (1997) Complete British Wildlife photo guide. Harper Collins Publishers, London.
  3. O'Toole, C. (2002) The new encyclopedia of insects and their allies. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  4. Buczacki, S. (2002) Fauna Britannica. Hamlyn, London.
  5. University of Florida, Department of Entomology and Nematology: European earwig (March 2003): http://creatures.ifas.ufl.edu/veg/european_earwig.htm
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Common European earwig  
Common European earwig

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