The Christmas shearwater is not currently considered to be threatened with extinction (1).
However, introduced and invasive species threaten Christmas shearwater populations by predating the eggs, chicks and adults, as well as by causing habitat degradation and increasing competition for space and suitable nesting locations. In addition, human activities such as development and recreation close to nesting colonies may threaten the Christmas shearwater by causing disturbance to nesting birds and resulting in increased nest desertion (2).
Other threats to the Christmas shearwater include its exploitation for food on some Pacific islands, as well as pollution, ingestion of plastics, which may lead to starvation, and increasing levels of light pollution, which may cause the Christmas shearwater to become disorientated and confused. Collision with longline fishing gear is a major cause of mortality, while overfishing of important predatory fish may lead to reduced foraging success of seabirds such as the Christmas shearwater, which rely on larger fish to drive prey to the surface (2).
Climate change, in particular rising sea levels, is also likely to affect Christmas shearwater populations in the future, as many colonies exist on small, low-lying oceanic islets which are increasingly at risk from exceptional weather and ocean events such as El Niño, hurricanes, typhoons, and tsunamis (2).