Human settlers began clearing Brazil’s Atlantic forests in the 16thcentury when European explorers established along the coastline. Forests were initially cut down for timber and later to make room for the rapidly expanding cattle ranches and sugar plantations. The rate of deforestation increased dramatically in the 19thand 20thcenturies due to rapid population and economic growth, and an increased demand for charcoal and firewood. The legacy of such a destructive history is that, tragically, today less than 10 percent of the Atlantic forest remains. Consequently, many of the species within this region are seriously threatened with extinction (6) (7). One such species, the cherry-throated tanager, now has a critically small population, probably no more than 250 individuals, and a very patchy distribution (2). The future of this rare species is threatened by further loss to what little habitat remains, through urban and agricultural encroachment and timber extraction (4) (8).