While the chamois is, as a species, still common, a number of the subspecies are threatened and require conservation action. The Chartreuse chamois has, since 1972, been the focus of conservation measures, beginning with efforts to educate local hunters. The hunters formed a Chamois Management Unit and together implemented measures including a shooting moratorium, lasting several years, and limiting livestock grazing on upland pastures. The efforts were a success, with the population multiplying by five between 1985 and 1997, but the population still faces threats, particularly hybridisation with the Alpine chamois (5).
The Critically Endangered Tatra chamois is protected by law in Poland and Slovakia, and occurs solely within two national parks, each of which includes an area in which public access is strictly controlled to eliminate any disturbance during winter and during the birth season. Control of sheep grazing in Tatra National Park led to an increase in population numbers, but more recently numbers have again declined, possibly due to poor weather conditions and poaching (4).
Although not so greatly threatened, the other five subspecies are subject to varying hunting laws and legal protection, occur in numerous protected areas, and some, such as the Balkan chamois and Carpathian chamois, have been successfully introduced to further areas (4).