Chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs)
|French:||Pinson des arbres|
|Size||Length: 14 - 16 cm (2)|
Wingspan: 24.5 - 28.5 cm (3)
|Weight||18 - 29 g (3)|
The chaffinch is classified as Least Concern (LC) on the IUCN Red List (1). Included in the Birds of Conservation Concern Green List (low conservation concern) (4).
The chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs) is one of the best-known and most common of all British birds (5). Both sexes can be easily identified in flight when they reveal double white flashes on the wings and white tail-sides (3). In summer the males have colourful plumage, with a rosy-red breast and cheeks and a bluish-grey crown and nape of the neck. These colours fade somewhat in winter. Adult females and juveniles have a buff or greyish coloured breast and greyish-green upperparts (2). Chaffinches produce a variety of calls, including a loud, clear pink call when perched (2). The musical rattling song is also loud (6).
Widespread throughout Britain; the chaffinch is absent only from high ground such as the Scottish Highlands (5). During winter, birds from northern Europe migrate to Britain. It is typically the females that migrate, and Linnaeus named the species coelebs, meaning ‘the bachelor’ because it was the male birds that remained in his native Sweden for the winter (5).
The chaffinch breeds in woodland, gardens and parks (2).
Chaffinches feed on seeds, particularly of cereals or weeds, taken from the ground (5), in summer they may also take invertebrates from the ground or in the air (6). In winter, native birds tend to feed in small groups near hedges or in woodlands and roost singly or in pairs, whereas migrants from mainland Europe occur in large flocks in fields and roost communally (5).
During the breeding season, the male chaffinch performs a courtship display, showing off his bright breeding plumage (6). The female builds the nest (5), typically in the fork of a tree and camouflages it with lichen and moss (2). The female incubates the eggs alone (6) for 11 to 14 days. One brood of around four eggs is produced each year (5). The young chaffinches will have fully fledged 13 to 14 days after hatching from the egg, and the maximum known lifespan of this species is 14 years (3).
The chaffinch is not threatened at present (4).
Conservation action has not been targeted at the chaffinch.
For more information on the chaffinch and other bird species:
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- Incubate: to keep eggs warm so that development is possible.
- Invertebrates: animals with no backbone, such as insects, crustaceans, worms, molluscs, spiders, cnidarians (jellyfish, corals, sea anemones), echinoderms, and others.
IUCN Red List (April, 2011)
- Mullarney, K., Svensson, L., Zetterström, D. & Grant, P.J. (1999) Collins Bird Guide. HarperCollins Publishers Ltd, London.
RSPB A-Z of Birds: Chaffinch (February 2004)
British Trust for Ornithology/ JNCC- breeding birds in the wider countryside: chaffinch (February 2004)
- Lack. P. (1986) The Atlas of wintering birds in Britain and Ireland. T & A D Poyser Ltd, London.
- Holden, P. & Sharrock, J.T.R. (2002) The RSPB Guide to British Birds. Pan Macmillan, London.