Chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs)

Male chaffinch with insect prey
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Chaffinch fact file

Chaffinch description

GenusFringilla (1)

The chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs) is one of the best-known and most common of all British birds (5). Both sexes can be easily identified in flight when they reveal double white flashes on the wings and white tail-sides (3). In summer the males have colourful plumage, with a rosy-red breast and cheeks and a bluish-grey crown and nape of the neck. These colours fade somewhat in winter. Adult females and juveniles have a buff or greyish coloured breast and greyish-green upperparts (2). Chaffinches produce a variety of calls, including a loud, clear pink call when perched (2). The musical rattling song is also loud (6).

Pinson des arbres.
Length: 14 - 16 cm (2)
Wingspan: 24.5 - 28.5 cm (3)
18 - 29 g (3)

Chaffinch biology

Chaffinches feed on seeds, particularly of cereals or weeds, taken from the ground (5), in summer they may also take invertebrates from the ground or in the air (6). In winter, native birds tend to feed in small groups near hedges or in woodlands and roost singly or in pairs, whereas migrants from mainland Europe occur in large flocks in fields and roost communally (5).

During the breeding season, the male chaffinch performs a courtship display, showing off his bright breeding plumage (6). The female builds the nest (5), typically in the fork of a tree and camouflages it with lichen and moss (2). The female incubates the eggs alone (6) for 11 to 14 days. One brood of around four eggs is produced each year (5). The young chaffinches will have fully fledged 13 to 14 days after hatching from the egg, and the maximum known lifespan of this species is 14 years (3).


Chaffinch range

Widespread throughout Britain; the chaffinch is absent only from high ground such as the Scottish Highlands (5). During winter, birds from northern Europe migrate to Britain. It is typically the females that migrate, and Linnaeus named the species coelebs, meaning ‘the bachelor’ because it was the male birds that remained in his native Sweden for the winter (5).

You can view distribution information for this species at the National Biodiversity Network Gateway.

Chaffinch habitat

The chaffinch breeds in woodland, gardens and parks (2).


Chaffinch status

The chaffinch is classified as Least Concern (LC) on the IUCN Red List (1). Included in the Birds of Conservation Concern Green List (low conservation concern) (4).

IUCN Red List species status – Least Concern


Chaffinch threats

The chaffinch is not threatened at present (4).


Chaffinch conservation

Conservation action has not been targeted at the chaffinch.

There may be further information about this species available via the National Biodiversity Network Gateway.
To help conserve this species by working in the field with Earthwatch, click here.
View information on this species at the UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre.

Find out more

For more information on the chaffinch and other bird species:



This information is awaiting authentication by a species expert, and will be updated as soon as possible. If you are able to help please contact:



To keep eggs warm so that development is possible.
Animals with no backbone, such as insects, crustaceans, worms, molluscs, spiders, cnidarians (jellyfish, corals, sea anemones), echinoderms, and others.


  1. IUCN Red List (April, 2011)
  2. Mullarney, K., Svensson, L., Zetterström, D. & Grant, P.J. (1999) Collins Bird Guide. HarperCollins Publishers Ltd, London.
  3. RSPB A-Z of Birds: Chaffinch (February 2004)
  4. British Trust for Ornithology/ JNCC- breeding birds in the wider countryside: chaffinch (February 2004)
  5. Lack. P. (1986) The Atlas of wintering birds in Britain and Ireland. T & A D Poyser Ltd, London.
  6. Holden, P. & Sharrock, J.T.R. (2002) The RSPB Guide to British Birds. Pan Macmillan, London.

Image credit

Male chaffinch with insect prey  
Male chaffinch with insect prey

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