The main threats facing the Cayman Islands ground iguana across its range are habitat change and destruction and human disturbance (1). These threats are largely the result of coastal areas with sandy beaches being progressively developed for tourist resorts (6), including a number of formerly uninhabited offshore Cuban islets with populations of the Cuban ground iguana subspecies, which had previously remained relatively safe from human disturbance (4). For the Lesser Caymans iguana subspecies, the site of a proposed new, paved airstrip to replace the existing grass airstrip on Little Cayman overlaps areas of prime habitat, and the airstrip is likely to significantly increase tourism and associated development of the island. Because inland nesting sites are limited on Little Cayman, the ongoing destruction and disturbance of coastal nesting areas is of considerable concern. The Lesser Caymans iguana has also suffered from habitat destruction and mortality from road construction, commercial and residential real estate development, disturbance of sensitive nesting areas, and livestock grazing (on Cayman Brac) and farming practices. Sadly, the construction of a municipal power generating station on Little Cayman in the early 1990s has rapidly increased road construction and real estate development, and the human population, although still small, has increased seven fold.
Predation by feral cats and domestic dogs has also had a negative impact on both subspecies, in addition to egg predation by pigs on Cuba and possible predation by introduced rats on the Lesser Caymans iguana (1).