Sunday 19 May
Calamian deer (Axis calamianensis)
What’s the World’s Favourite Species?Find out here.
Calamian deer fact file
- Find out more
- Print factsheet
Calamian deer description
The Calamian deer is a fairly small and heavy-bodied deer (4), with relatively long legs (5). Its coarse hair is tawny-brown with darker underparts (4) (6), and the legs are darker than the rest of the body (5). The face has subtle white markings around the muzzle, inside and at the base of the ears, and on the throat, and the underside of the short, bushy tail is also white. Undoubtedly, the most distinctive feature of the Calamian deer is the three-pronged antlers of the male (5): bony, hornlike appendages that are typically shed and re-grown each year (4).
- Also known as
- Calamanian deer, Calamian hog deer, Philippine deer.
- Cerf-cochon Calamien.
- Ciervo De Los Calamianes, Ciervo Porquerizo De Los Calamianes.
- Head-body length: 100 – 175 cm (2)
- Tail length: 12 – 38 cm (2)
- Shoulder height: 60 – 100 cm (2)
- 27 – 110 kg (2)
- Haribon Foundation:
- The state of being pregnant; the period from conception to birth.
- Second growth scrub
- Scrub vegetation that has re-grown after a disturbance, such as fire or clearance.
- The cutting and burning of forests or woodlands to create space for agriculture or livestock.
- IUCN Red List (June, 2008)
- Nowak, R.M. (1999) Walker's Mammals of the World. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland.
- CITES (June, 2008)
- Macdonald, D.W. (2006) The Encyclopedia of Mammals. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
- Geist, V. (1999) Deer of the World: Their Evolution, Behaviour, and Ecology. Swan Hill Press, Shrewsbury, England.
- Maala, C.P. (2001) Endangered Philippine wildlife species with special reference to the Philippine eagle (Pithecophaga Jefferyi) and tamaraw (Bubalus Mindorensis). Journal of International Development and Cooperation, 8(1): 1 - 17.
- Wemmer, C. (1998) Deer: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN/SSC Deer Specialist Group, IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
- Heaney, L.R., Balete, D.S., Dolar, M.L., Alcala, A.C., Dans, A.T.L., Gonzales, P.C., Ingle, N.R., Lepiten, M.V., Oliver, W.L.R., Ong, P.S., Rickart, E.A., Tabaranza Jr, B.R. and Utzurrum, R.C.B. (1998) A synopsis of the mammalian fauna of the Philippine Islands. Fieldiana Zoology, 88: 1 - 61.
- Villamor, C.I. (1987) Breeding of Calamian deer (Axis calamianensis) in captivity. Sylvatrop, Philippines Forestry Research Journal, 12: 49 - 60.
- Oliver, W.L.R. (1993) Calamian deer field survey and (proposed) conservation program. Deer Specialist Group News, 11: 3 - 4.
- view the contents of, and Material on, the website;
- download and retain copies of the Material on their personal systems in digital form in low resolution for their own personal use;
- teachers, lecturers and students may incorporate the Material in their educational material (including, but not limited to, their lesson plans, presentations, worksheets and projects) in hard copy and digital format for use within a registered educational establishment, provided that the integrity of the Material is maintained and that copyright ownership and authorship is appropriately acknowledged by the End User.
Calamian deer biology
Little information exists about the biology of the Calamian deer (6). It is said to occur in groups usually numbering 7 to 14 individuals, although in areas where this deer is heavily hunted, much smaller groups have been reported (7). In captivity, Calamian deer have been observed to mate and give birth year round, with a gestation period of around 222 days (9).
The antlers of the male deer arise from the skin covering the front of the skull and grow within a sensitive skin containing numerous blood vessels, called velvet. After providing the growing bone with oxygen and nutrients, the velvet dries and cracks when the antlers have reached their full size and the males rub it off by hitting their antlers against small trees or shrubs. This simultaneously stains the antlers with the dark sap that seeps from the tree’s bark (4).Top
Calamian deer range
As its name suggests, this deer occurs in the Calamian Islands, a group of islands in the Philippines. Within this island group, it is found on Busuanga and Culion, as well as the small island of Calauit, situated off the northwest tip of Busuanga (7). Calauit currently holds the largest population of Calamian deer, which has increased from a tiny population following the introduction of 30 individuals in 1977 (7).Top
Calamian deer habitatTop
Calamian deer statusTop
Calamian deer threats
These beautiful deer are hunted by local people, primarily for their meat, although their hides are sometimes used for drum-skins and their antlers for decoration (7). This hunting, which was particularly severe during the mid-1970s but has declined in more recent years (7), has left Calamian deer populations seriously depleted (5).
The greatest number of Calamian deer remains on Calauit Island (2), which in 1976 was declared a Game Reserve and Wildlife Sanctuary (6), accompanied by the eviction of 256 families from the island (7). This population of deer is now threatened by the return of the evicted families, who have settled illegally on Calauit Island (7), bringing with them animals which may carry infectious diseases (6), and causing significant damage to the island’s forests through slash-and-burn agriculture (10).Top
Calamian deer conservation
The most significant conservation measures implemented for this Endangered species to date have been the establishment of the Calauit Island Game Preserve and Wildlife Sanctuary and the introduction of 30 deer to the island (7). In 1993, the Calamian Deer Conservation Program was also launched, an initiative which has led to the undertaking of status surveys, research, conservation education, and the formation of management recommendations. There are no reserves on Busuanga and Culion, but relatively large parts of these islands fortunately remain undeveloped and sparsely inhabited (7).Top
Find out more
For further information on conservation in the Philippines see:
This information is awaiting authentication by a species expert, and will be updated as soon as possible. If you are able to help please contact:
MyARKive offers the scrapbook feature to signed-up members, allowing you to organize your favourite ARKive images and videos and share them with friends.
Terms and Conditions of Use of Materials
Copyright in this website and materials contained on this website (Material) belongs to Wildscreen or its licensors.
Visitors to this website (End Users) are entitled to:
End Users shall not copy or otherwise extract, alter or manipulate Material other than as permitted in these Terms and Conditions of Use of Materials.
Additional use of flagged material
Green flagged material
Certain Material on this website (Licence 4 Material) displays a green flag next to the Material and is available for not-for-profit conservation or educational use. This material may be used by End Users, who are individuals or organisations that are in our opinion not-for-profit, for their not-for-profit conservation or not-for-profit educational purposes. Low resolution, watermarked images may be copied from this website by such End Users for such purposes. If you require high resolution or non-watermarked versions of the Material, please contact Wildscreen with details of your proposed use.
Creative commons material
Certain Material on this website has been licensed to Wildscreen under a Creative Commons Licence. These images are clearly marked with the Creative Commons buttons and may be used by End Users only in the way allowed by the specific Creative Commons Licence under which they have been submitted. Please see http://creativecommons.org for details.
Any other use
Please contact the copyright owners directly (copyright and contact details are shown for each media item) to negotiate terms and conditions for any use of Material other than those expressly permitted above. Please note that many of the contributors to ARKive are commercial operators and may request a fee for such use.
Save as permitted above, no person or organisation is permitted to incorporate any copyright material from this website into any other work or publication in any format (this includes but is not limited to: websites, Apps, CDs, DVDs, intranets, extranets, signage, digital communications or on printed materials for external or other distribution). Use of the Material for promotional, administrative or for-profit purposes is not permitted.