The Burmese star tortoise exists in two protected areas, Shwe Settaw Wildlife Sanctuary and Minzontaung Wildlife Sanctuary, and an area proposed for protected status, Myaleik Taung. At the Minzontaung Wildlife Sanctuary and Myaleik Taung the species is protected by local religious beliefs that deem it bad luck to collect the tortoises, and commercial poaching is so far virtually non-existent. The Sanctuary is also well patrolled by guards, with access strictly controlled, and wild fires are managed. The Minzontaung Wildlife Sanctuary and Myaleik Taung therefore offer excellent potential for the successful conservation of the Burmese star tortoise (5). Sadly, the Shwe Settaw Wildlife Sanctuary does not seem to be faring so well, which has recently been reduced by around 30% due to the sale of a large tract to an agricultural development consortium. Subsistence and commercial harvest from the Sanctuary is commonplace, with one village trader admitting to collecting 300 individuals in 6 months, and there being at least one trader in every village. The Burmese star tortoise is fully protected by law and it is a capital offence to remove them from the wild. However, the Myanmar Government reportedly ignore the capture and sale of these tortoises or are easily bribed, with rampant civil war and radical guerrilla soldiers near the borders deterring police involvement there. A captive breeding programme has been set up at the Shwe Settaw Wildlife Sanctuary but hybridisation with Indotestudo elongata in a shared fenced area has been common. There is also evidence that this area is quickly grazed and tortoises here starve to death at an alarming rate. Stricter enforcement of protection laws is desperately needed and more effective management protocols at this Sanctuary, but as long as a lucrative market exists, tortoise hunting is likely to remain an attractive economic option for rural people (8). One suggestion has been to promote the significance of rural religious beliefs for the benefit of tortoise conservation in this area, which has helped protect this beautiful species so effectively in the Minzontaung Wildlife Sanctuary and Myaleik Taung (5). However, in a financially depressed society such as this, the economic lure of such profitable natural resources may sadly win out (8).