Brown lemur (Eulemur fulvus)

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Pair of brown lemurs
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Brown lemur fact file

Brown lemur description

KingdomAnimalia
PhylumChordata
ClassMammalia
OrderPrimates
FamilyLemuridae
GenusEulemur (1)

This medium-sized lemur has a horizontal posture, which is suited to its predominantly quadrupedal mode of movement (2). These lemurs are also capable of leaping considerable distances, their long furry tails assisting them in maintaining their balance (4). The short, dense coat of both sexes is grey-brown on the upperparts, and paler and slightly greyer on the underparts. The face, muzzle and crown are dark-grey to black, with faint pale eyebrow patches and paler grey-brown fur around the ears, cheeks and underneath the chin. The eyes are a rich orange-red (2).

Also known as
common brown lemur.
Synonyms
Eulemur fulvus fulvus.
French
Lémur Brun, Maki Brun.
Size
Head-body length: 43 – 50 cm (2)
Tail length: 41.5 – 51 cm (2)
Weight
2 – 3 kg (2)
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Brown lemur biology

Brown lemurs live in multimale-multifemale groups without a noticeable hierarchy, generally numbering from 3 to 12 individuals, with 9 to 12 being the norm (2) (4). Breeding is seasonal with mating usually occurring in May and June. The gestation period is approximately 120 days, with infants born between September and October, at the onset of the rainy season. A single offspring is usual, although twins have been reported (2). Brown lemurs reach sexual maturity between one and three years, and the lifespan in the wild is believed to range between 20 and 25 years (2) (4).

This species is cathemeral, meaning it is active at varying times throughout the day and night. Fruit, mature leaves, flowers, bark, sap, soil, insects, centipedes and millipedes form the bulk of this lemur’s diet (6).

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Brown lemur range

This species has a notably disjunct distribution, found in western Madagascar north of the Betsiboka River, on the high plateau in scattered forest fragments, and in eastern Madagascar to the north of the Mangoro River. It has also been introduced to the island of Mayotte in the Comoros (5).

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Brown lemur habitat

Found in rainforest, moist montane forest and dry deciduous forest (2). Brown lemurs are arboreal and spend most of their time in the upper layers of the canopy (6).

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Brown lemur status

Classified as Near Threatened (NT) on the IUCN Red List (1) and listed under Appendix I of CITES (3).

IUCN Red List species status – Near Threatened

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Brown lemur threats

Habitat destruction remains the primary threat to the brown lemur, largely as a result of the explosive growth in the human population on Madagascar (4). Eastern areas of rainforest are destroyed by slash-and-burn agriculture and by forest cutting for fuel wood and construction, while dryer western forests are cleared by fires started to promote new flushes of pasture for grazing cattle. Hunting and trapping for food or the pet trade may also constitute a threat to the brown lemur in some parts of its range (2) (4).

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Brown lemur conservation

The brown lemur is found in at least 13 protected areas, including four national parks, two strict nature reserves and seven special reserves (3). Captive bred populations also exist in institutions worldwide (4). The fate of the brown lemur in the wild will most probably be determined by the future of its forest habitat, which needs to be better preserved if the survival of this lemur is to be safeguarded.

View information on this species at the UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre.
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Find out more

For further information on the brown lemur see:

Garbutt, N. (1999) Mammals of Madagascar. Pica Press, Sussex.

Mittermeier, R.A., Tattersall, I., Konstant, W.R., Meyers, D.M., and Mast, R.B. (1994) Lemurs of Madagascar. Conservation International, Washington, D.C.

Animal Diversity Web:
http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/index.html

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Authentication

Authenticated (21/11/2005) by Matt Richardson, independent primatologist and writer.

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Glossary

Arboreal
Living in trees.
Cathemeral
Active intermittently throughout the day and night.
Quadrupedal
Applied to animals that walk on four feet.
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References

  1. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (June, 2009)
    http://www.redlist.org
  2. Garbutt, N. (1999) Mammals of Madagascar. Pica Press, Sussex.
  3. CITES (June, 2009)
    http://www.cites.org
  4. Animal Diversity Web (November, 2005)
    http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/index.html
  5. Richardson, M. (2005) Pers. comm.
  6. bbc.co.uk Science and Nature (November, 2005)
    http://www.bbc.co.uk/nature/wildfacts/factfiles/339.shtml
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Image credit

Pair of brown lemurs  
Pair of brown lemurs

© Nathan Harrison / www.nathan-harrison.com

Nathan Harrison
Tel: 07812003420
nathan@nathan-harrison.com

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