Owing to its scarcity, relatively little is known about the biology of the Brazilian three-banded armadillo (2). Like other armadillos, the diet of this species is likely to comprise invertebrates, particularly termites and ants, which are obtained by using its powerful fore claws to tear open mounds (2) (5). It does not appear to seek refuge in burrows, and instead relies upon its ability to roll into an impregnable ball when threatened (1) (2).
The female Brazilian three-banded armadillo produces only a single young in each litter, which is born extremely well-developed, having the appearance of a miniature version of the adult. The young is almost immediately able to walk and roll into a ball, but remains with the parent until weaned at around 72 days old. Sexual maturity is reached at around 9 to 12 months (2).