The Brazilian bare-faced tamarin lives in groups of 4 to 15 individuals (1). Within each group, only the alpha female will give birth each year to, usually, twins (6), after a gestation period of about 160 days (7). Other females within the group do not engage in sexual activity and ovulation may in fact be suppressed by chemicals given off by the alpha female (6). Group care of the young is an important feature of tamarins, with the subordinate individuals providing a significant amount of care to the young (6).
The diet of the Brazilian bare-faced tamarin consists of fruit, flowers, nectar, tree exudates and small animal prey such as insects, lizards and other small vertebrates (8). In the wild, tamarins will spend about 60 percent of the day foraging for food (6), moving on all fours through the trees and leaping between branches (9).
Tamarins are known to communicate through scent marking, which appears to be important in both social and sexual behaviour. In captivity they will increase scent marking when introduced to unfamiliar animals (6).