Bluebell (Hyacinthoides non-scripta)
|Also known as:||Wild hyacinth|
|Size||Flower stalk length: 20 - 50 cm (2)|
Leaf width: 7 - 15 mm (2)
Leaf length: 20 - 45 cm (2)
Wild bluebells are protected in Britain with respect to sale under the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981. Classified as a UK Biodiversity Action Plan species of conservation concern, although not a priority species (3).
The bluebell, popularly thought of as Britain's national flower (4), is a bulbous spring flowering plant (5). When growing en masse in woodlands it creates a dazzling display of brilliant blue, which is not only a great wild flower phenomenon, but also a British speciality (4). The fragrant bell-shaped flowers stand upright when they are in bud, but hang downwards, nodding in the breeze when fully open; they may be violet-blue, white or even pink on rare occasions, and have cream-coloured anthers. They are arranged in clusters of 4-16 on flower spikes (known as racemes), which have drooping tips (2). The narrow leaves are deep green, and grow to 45 cm in length (2). The unusual specific part of the scientific name 'non-scripta' means 'unlettered', and distinguishes this species from the hyacinth, which in Greek mythology sprang from the blood of the prince Hyacinthus as he died; in his grief at this tragedy, the God Apollo wrote 'AIAI' ('alas') on the petals of this flower (4).
The bluebell has a wide distribution throughout Britain, but is absent from Orkney and Shetland (2); its range appears to be fairly stable (6). It is also found in western Europe from central Spain as far north as the Netherlands, and has become naturalised in parts of central Europe (2).
This species is found in deciduous woodlands, hedgrows, meadows, under bracken in upland areas, and on cliffs; it also occurs as a garden escape (6). The presence of the species in hedgerows and under bracken on pastures may indicate that the land was once covered in woodland (4).
The flowers of this perennial species are present between April and June (7), and are pollinated by insects (2).
A number of populations have been damaged by large-scale commercial removal of bulbs for sale, despite the species being listed under the Wildlife and Countryside Act of 1981 (6). This has been particularly problematic in East Anglia, where the species is less common (4). Furthermore, picking and trampling are also problems in some areas, and hybridisation (cross-breeding) with non-native species is also a cause for concern. Plantlife have identified the bluebell as one of a number of plant species that will struggle in the face of global warming (5).
Although widespread in Britain, the bluebell is globally threatened. Populations in the UK represent 25-49% of the world population (5). It is a UK Biodiversity Action Plan (UKBAP) Species of Conservation Concern, but not a priority species (3). The species has been included in a number of Local BAPs; action taken includes the planting of a large number of bluebell bulbs. An example of this has taken place in Edinburgh, where 50,000 native bulbs were planted in 1998 alone (5).
For more on the Bluebell (Hyacinthoides non-scripta) see: Edinburgh Biodiversity Partnership
Bluebell recovery projects:
http://www.merseyforest.org.uk/campaigns-bluebell.shtml For more information on British plants and their conservation see Plantlife- the wild plant conservation charity:
Visit the website of the Botanical Society of the British Isles at:
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- Anthers: part of the stamen (the male reproductive organ of a flower) that produces pollen. (See http://www.rbgkew.org.uk/ksheets/pdfs/flower.pdf for a fact sheet on flower structure)
- Deciduous: a plant that sheds its leaves at the end of the growing season.
- Hybridisation: cross-breeding with a different species.
- Naturalised: term used to describe a species that was originally introduced from another country, but becomes established, maintains itself and invades native populations.
- Perennial: plants that live for at least three seasons; after an initial period they produce flowers once a year.
- Racemes: an inflorescence where the individual flowers all have distinct stalks. (See http://www.rbgkew.org.uk/ksheets/pdfs/flower.pdf for a fact sheet on flower structure).
- National Biodiversity Network Species Dictionary. (Feb 2003): http://www.nhm.ac.uk/nbn/
- Clapham, A.R., Tutin, T.G. & Moore, D.M. (1987) Flora of the British Isles. 3rd Edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
- The Environment Agency (1996) Species and Habitats handbook: look-up chart of species and their legal status. The Environment Agency, Bristol.
- Mabey, R. (1996) Flora Britannica. Sinclair-Stevenson, London.
- Bluebell (Hyacinthoides non-scripta). Edinburgh Biodiversity Partnership (Feb 2003): http://www.wildlifetrust.org.uk/urbanwt/ecorecord/bap/html/bluebell.htm
- Preston, C.D., Pearman, D.A. & Dines, T.D. (2002) The New Atlas of the British and Irish Flora. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
- Press, B. & Gibbons, B (1993) Photographic field guide to wild flowers of Britain and Europe. New Holland Publishers (UK) Ltd, London.