Bluebell (Hyacinthoides non-scripta)

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Bluebells in woodland
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Bluebell fact file

Bluebell description

KingdomPlantae
PhylumAnthophyta
ClassLiliopsida
OrderLiliales
FamilyLiliaceae
GenusHyacinthoides (1)

The bluebell, popularly thought of as Britain's national flower (4), is a bulbous spring flowering plant (5). When growing en masse in woodlands it creates a dazzling display of brilliant blue, which is not only a great wild flower phenomenon, but also a British speciality (4). The fragrant bell-shaped flowers stand upright when they are in bud, but hang downwards, nodding in the breeze when fully open; they may be violet-blue, white or even pink on rare occasions, and have cream-coloured anthers. They are arranged in clusters of 4-16 on flower spikes (known as racemes), which have drooping tips (2). The narrow leaves are deep green, and grow to 45 cm in length (2). The unusual specific part of the scientific name 'non-scripta' means 'unlettered', and distinguishes this species from the hyacinth, which in Greek mythology sprang from the blood of the prince Hyacinthus as he died; in his grief at this tragedy, the God Apollo wrote 'AIAI' ('alas') on the petals of this flower (4).

Also known as
Wild hyacinth.
Size
Flower stalk length: 20 - 50 cm (2)
Leaf width: 7 - 15 mm (2)
Leaf length: 20 - 45 cm (2)
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Bluebell biology

The flowers of this perennial species are present between April and June (7), and are pollinated by insects (2).

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Bluebell range

The bluebell has a wide distribution throughout Britain, but is absent from Orkney and Shetland (2); its range appears to be fairly stable (6). It is also found in western Europe from central Spain as far north as the Netherlands, and has become naturalised in parts of central Europe (2).

You can view distribution information for this species at the National Biodiversity Network Gateway.
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Bluebell habitat

This species is found in deciduous woodlands, hedgrows, meadows, under bracken in upland areas, and on cliffs; it also occurs as a garden escape (6). The presence of the species in hedgerows and under bracken on pastures may indicate that the land was once covered in woodland (4).

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Bluebell status

Wild bluebells are protected in Britain with respect to sale under the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981. Classified as a UK Biodiversity Action Plan species of conservation concern, although not a priority species (3).

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Bluebell threats

A number of populations have been damaged by large-scale commercial removal of bulbs for sale, despite the species being listed under the Wildlife and Countryside Act of 1981 (6). This has been particularly problematic in East Anglia, where the species is less common (4). Furthermore, picking and trampling are also problems in some areas, and hybridisation (cross-breeding) with non-native species is also a cause for concern. Plantlife have identified the bluebell as one of a number of plant species that will struggle in the face of global warming (5).

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Bluebell conservation

Although widespread in Britain, the bluebell is globally threatened. Populations in the UK represent 25-49% of the world population (5). It is a UK Biodiversity Action Plan (UKBAP) Species of Conservation Concern, but not a priority species (3). The species has been included in a number of Local BAPs; action taken includes the planting of a large number of bluebell bulbs. An example of this has taken place in Edinburgh, where 50,000 native bulbs were planted in 1998 alone (5).

There may be further information about this species available via the National Biodiversity Network Gateway.
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Find out more

For more on the Bluebell (Hyacinthoides non-scripta) see: Edinburgh Biodiversity Partnership
http://www.wildlifetrust.org.uk/urbanwt/ecorecord/bap/html/bluebell.htm
Bluebell recovery projects:
http://www.merseyforest.org.uk/campaigns-bluebell.shtml For more information on British plants and their conservation see Plantlife- the wild plant conservation charity:
http://www.plantlife.org.uk/
Visit the website of the Botanical Society of the British Isles at:
http://www.bsbi.org.uk

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Authentication

This information is awaiting authentication by a species expert, and will be updated as soon as possible. If you are able to help please contact: arkive@wildscreen.org.uk
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Glossary

Anthers
Part of the stamen (the male reproductive organ of a flower) that produces pollen. (See http://www.rbgkew.org.uk/ksheets/pdfs/flower.pdf for a fact sheet on flower structure)
Deciduous
A plant that sheds its leaves at the end of the growing season.
Hybridisation
Cross-breeding with a different species.
Naturalised
Term used to describe a species that was originally introduced from another country, but becomes established, maintains itself and invades native populations.
Perennial
Plants that live for at least three seasons; after an initial period they produce flowers once a year.
Racemes
An inflorescence where the individual flowers all have distinct stalks. (See http://www.rbgkew.org.uk/ksheets/pdfs/flower.pdf for a fact sheet on flower structure).
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References

  1. National Biodiversity Network Species Dictionary. (Feb 2003): http://www.nhm.ac.uk/nbn/
  2. Clapham, A.R., Tutin, T.G. & Moore, D.M. (1987) Flora of the British Isles. 3rd Edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  3. The Environment Agency (1996) Species and Habitats handbook: look-up chart of species and their legal status. The Environment Agency, Bristol.
  4. Mabey, R. (1996) Flora Britannica. Sinclair-Stevenson, London.
  5. Bluebell (Hyacinthoides non-scripta). Edinburgh Biodiversity Partnership (Feb 2003): http://www.wildlifetrust.org.uk/urbanwt/ecorecord/bap/html/bluebell.htm
  6. Preston, C.D., Pearman, D.A. & Dines, T.D. (2002) The New Atlas of the British and Irish Flora. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  7. Press, B. & Gibbons, B (1993) Photographic field guide to wild flowers of Britain and Europe. New Holland Publishers (UK) Ltd, London.
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Image credit

Bluebells in woodland  
Bluebells in woodland

© George McCarthy / naturepl.com

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