The blue-throated macaw is protected by law in Bolivia (2) and international trade is prohibited by its listing on Appendix I of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) (4). Illegal trade appears to continue however, and it has been recommended that full-time guards may be required to halt this process (2). Problems arise, however, from the fact that much of this bird’s range is on privately owned ranches (5). Research is also needed into the natural ecology of this species so that effective management plans can be implemented (2). Fortunately, there are several organisations involved with the research and conservation of this bird, and a Species Recovery Plan has now been formulated. NGO Armonía, Bolivia’s BirdLife International partner, also set up the Blue-throated Macaw Conservation Programme, which they have worked on in conjunction with the Loro Parque Fundación to save this Critically Endangered bird. Incredibly in October 2004, this programme found a new disjunct population at Santa Rosa, 100 kilometres west of previous records, providing new hope that more blue-throated macaws exist in the wild than previously thought (6). The programme’s important work on mapping the species, assessing its numbers and threats in different areas will certainly help guide priority conservation decisions in the future, and hopefully help bring this beautiful bird back from the brink of extinction (5).