Blackbird (Turdus merula)

GenusTurdus (1)
SizeLength: 23.5 - 29 cm (2)
Top facts

The blackbird is classified as Least Concern (LC) on the IUCN Red List (1). Widespread and common species, not listed under any conservation designations (2). Included in the Birds of Conservation Concern Green List (low conservation concern) (3).

Adult male blackbirds (Turdus merula) are, as the name suggests, totally black; they have a bright golden-yellow bill and a neat yellow ring around the eye during spring and summer (2). Towards the end of summer the bill starts to darken (2). Females are brown in colour, with dark, streaky mottling on the paler, rufous breast. Juveniles resemble females, but they have pale spots on the upperparts (2). A range of vocalisations is produced, including a loud 'pli-pli-pli' alarm call, and the fluty, melodious song (4).

The blackbird is very widespread throughout most of Britain, with the exception of the Scottish Highlands (5). During winter there is massive immigration of blackbirds from Scandinavia, Germany, the Baltic States, and parts of Russia and Finland (5). Certain populations of British blackbirds also have strong migratory tendencies, with many Scottish birds spending the winter in Ireland (5). The British population has been declining since the 1970s, but may now be recovering (6). The blackbird is distributed from Iberia throughout temperate Europe, to Russia, and through Turkey, northern Iran, and the Himalayas, reaching into China (4).

Able to successfully exploit a large range of habitats, the blackbird is found from city centres to highland moors, including woodland, gardens, copses, and parks (4).

The blackbird feeds on fruits, berries, earthworms and a large range of insects (4). Its active feeding behaviour, when leaves are thrown aside, is characteristic (7), as is its careful stalking of a lawn whilst listening with the head cocked to one side for worms (2).

The nest, a stout cup of twigs, stems, mud and dry grass (8) is built in a tree or bush mainly by the female, although the male may assist by collecting materials (4). From March between four and five bluish eggs, mottled with reddish brown are laid and incubated by the female for up to 17 days. After hatching, the young are fed by both parents and fledge after around 13 days (9).

Agricultural intensification is thought to have played a part in the decline of the blackbird (6).

No conservation action has been targeted at the blackbird.

For further information on the blackbird: 

 For more information on the blackbird and other bird species:

Information authenticated by the RSPB:

  1. IUCN Red List (May, 2011)
  2. Mullarney, K., Svensson, L., Zetterstrom, D., & Grant, P.J. (1999) Collins Bird Guide. HarperCollins Publishers Ltd, London.
  3. RSPB (2003) The population status of birds in the UK:
  4. Gooder, J. (1982) Collins British Birds. William Collins Sons and Co Ltd, London.
  5. Lack, P. (1986) The Atlas of Wintering Birds in Britain and Ireland. T. & A. D. Poyser Ltd, Calton.
  6. JNCC Breeding Birds in the Wider Countryside (Nov 2002):
  7. Greenoak, F. (1979) All the birds of the air; the names, lore and literature of British birds. Book Club Associates, London.
  8. Walters, M (1994) Eyewitness Handbooks: Birds Eggs. Dorling Kindersley, London.
  9. RSPB (2003): Pers. comm.