Like most Asian turtle species, the black-breasted leaf turtle is in grave danger of extinction due to over-collection from the wild for the food, medicine and pet trade. Turtles are highly prized for food and traditional ‘medicinal’ purposes, and are ubiquitous in Asian food markets (9). Importation to the U.S. for the pet trade began in the 1980s, and most specimens found in pet stores today are still freshly imported from Asia (6), although there is now substantial breeding of the species in China, and some of the young exported into the global pet trade may come from farms (2). Nevertheless, before reaching their destination, many of these turtles have had to endure poor conditions in food markets, and are malnourished or develop pneumonia, mouth sores or other illnesses, and almost all will have parasites, from which many die (6). Another important factor in this species’ decline is forest loss and degradation from clearance for agriculture and uncontrolled wildfires (2). Thus, the high mortality rate amongst wild-caught leaf turtles, combined with unsustainable rates of harvesting from the wild, limited use of captive breeding and farming, and ongoing habitat loss has led to a serious decline in population numbers and left this enigmatic turtle clinging to a precarious existence (9).