Bermuda cave amphipod (Pseudoniphargus grandimanus)
|Size||Total male body length: 6.5 - 8 mm (2)|
Classified as Critically Endangered (CR) on the IUCN Red List 2006 (1).
This is a colourless, eyeless amphipod that lacks a rostrum. The upper lip is broadly rounded and the lower lip has large inner lobes (2).
Recorded from wells, waterworks and cave waters in Hamilton, St. George’s, Devonshire, Paget, Smith’s and Warwick Parishes, Bermuda, including Church, Wonderland, Admiral’s and Government Quarry Caves (2).
Found in a wide range of anchialine limestone cave and groundwater habitats throughout the entire salinity range, although most frequently in low salinity areas. Juveniles are found far closer (11-180 m) to the sea coast than adults (147-853 m) (2).
The fact that large adults, but notably no specimens carrying eggs, have been found further from the sea coast than juveniles could indicate a dependence on anchialine/marine habitats for reproduction, and also that juveniles migrate inland to mature (3).
Nothing else is known of this Bermuda cave amphipod’s biology.
The threats to this species are unknown.
There are currently no conservation measures underway targeting this species.
For more information on this atyid shrimp see:
- Anchialine Caves and Cave Fauna of the World:
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- Amphipod: a species belonging to the Amphipoda order.
- Anchialine: coastal bodies of standing waters that have no surface connections to the ocean but display both tidal fluctuations and salinity ranges characteristic of fresh and brackish waters, indicating the presence of subsurface connections to the watertable and ocean.
- Rostrum: Central, forward-projecting and occasionally long spine between the eyes of crustaceans.
- Salinity: the concentration of dissolved salt in water.
IUCN Red List (January, 2007)
Anchialine Caves and Cave Fauna of the World (February, 2007)
- Stock, J.H., Holsinger, J.R., Sket, B. and Iliffe, T.M. (1986) Two new species of Pseudoniphargus (Amphipoda), in Bermudian groundwaters. Zoologica Scripta, 15(3): 237 - 249.