Owing to its small size, low abundance and limited distribution, the banded neolebias escaped detection until 1993, and little is currently known about its life history. Because of its diminutive size, small mouth and teeth, it has been concluded that the banded neolebias feeds on tiny aquatic invertebrates.
Given the nature of its preferred habitat, it is somewhat surprising that the range of the banded neolebias is so restricted. During the rainy season (generally December to April), the streams that the banded neolebias occupies, along with others on the upland margins of the Barotse floodplain, burst their banks and flood the expansive, surrounding grasslands. However, surveys on the Barotse floodplain during the rainy season have failed to find any evidence of the presence of the banded neolebias (2).