Like most macaques, the Assam macaque is active during the day, and walks around on all fours. It travels mostly on the ground, but will also feed in trees and bushes. Much of this macaque’s time is spent resting or grooming, which usually takes place on the ground or on rocky terrain (3).
Leaves, fruits and flowers form a large part of the Assam macaque’s diet, although it is thought that insects and small vertebrates, including lizards, may also be consumed (2) (3) (5). This species is highly social (6) and generally lives in small groups of around 10 to 15 individuals (3), which include males, females and juveniles (5). However, groups of up to 50 individuals have also been observed (5). Assam macaque groups have strict dominance hierarchies (7). Female Assam macaques remain in the group into which they were born, whereas males disperse from the group once they reach maturity (8).
The breeding season of the Assam macaque has been recorded as November to December in Nepal (5) and October to February in Thailand (8). The skin on the female’s posterior becomes red when she is ready to mate (3), and during this time the female will present herself to passing males (5). The gestation period of the Assam macaque is around 158 to 170 days (8), and the female gives birth to a single offspring which weighs around 400 grams at birth (6).
Female Assam macaques usually give birth for the first time at around five years old, and are likely to have an infant every one to two years (3) (8). The lifespan of the Assam macaque is unknown (6).