Sunday 19 May
Api dwarf toad (Pelophryne api)
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Api dwarf toad fact file
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Api dwarf toad description
Discovered in 1978, the Api dwarf toad is an endangered toad known from only one locality on the island of Borneo (1) (2). It is a small, dark frog with indistinct pale markings formed by unpigmented skin, and slender fingers with bluntly rounded tips (2) (3). At higher altitudes, individuals have more extensive pale markings, and the males tend to be larger in size than those at lower altitudes (2).
- Snout-vent length: 21 mm (2)
Api dwarf toad biology
Very little is known about the biology of the Api dwarf toad, but, like other species in the genus, the larvae probably subsist entirely on yolk, and occur in small pools on the forest floor (1) (2) (4). The male has a high-pitched call, which it makes from the leaves of low plants on wet nights (2).Top
Api dwarf toad range
Endemic to Borneo, where it is only known from the Gunung Mulu National Park in northern Sarawak, Malaysia. It possibly also occurs in neighbouring Brunei, but its presence there has not been confirmed (1).Top
Api dwarf toad habitatTop
Api dwarf toad status
Classified as Endangered (EN) on the IUCN Red List (1).Top
Api dwarf toad threats
The Api dwarf toad appears to have an extremely restricted range, meaning that even a relatively small-scale disturbance could have a devastating impact on its population. Furthermore, the extent and quality of its habitat on Borneo is continuing to decline (1).Top
Api dwarf toad conservation
The Gunung Mulu National Park, home to the only known population of the Api dwarf toad, is a protected area and the most studied tropical karst area in the world. Nonetheless further survey work is needed to establish the size of the population in the park, and to determine whether this species is present in any other limestone karst areas on Borneo (1).Top
Find out more
To find out more about the frogs and toads of Borneo, visit:
Frogs of Borneo:
This information is awaiting authentication by a species expert, and will be updated as soon as possible. If you are able to help please contact:
- A species or taxonomic group that is only found in one particular country or geographic area.
- Stage in an animal’s lifecycle after it hatches from the egg. Larvae are typically very different in appearance to adults; they are able to feed and move around but usually are unable to reproduce.
- Primary rainforest
- Rainforest that has remained undisturbed for a long time and has reached a mature condition.
IUCN Red List (October, 2009)
- Dring, J. (1983) Some new frogs from Sarawak. Amphibia-Reptilia, 4: 103-115.
Frogs of Borneo (October, 2009)
- Malkmus, R., Manthey, U., Vogel, G., Hoffmann, P. and Kosuch, J. (2002) Amphibians and reptiles of Mount Kinabalu (North Borneo). Koeltz Scientific Books, Germany..
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