Api dwarf toad (Pelophryne api)

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Api dwarf toad
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Api dwarf toad fact file

Api dwarf toad description

KingdomAnimalia
PhylumChordata
ClassAmphibia
OrderAnura
FamilyBufonidae
GenusPelophryne (1)

Discovered in 1978, the Api dwarf toad is an endangered toad known from only one locality on the island of Borneo (1) (2). It is a small, dark frog with indistinct pale markings formed by unpigmented skin, and slender fingers with bluntly rounded tips (2) (3). At higher altitudes, individuals have more extensive pale markings, and the males tend to be larger in size than those at lower altitudes (2).

Size
Snout-vent length: 21 mm (2)
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Api dwarf toad biology

Very little is known about the biology of the Api dwarf toad, but, like other species in the genus, the larvae probably subsist entirely on yolk, and occur in small pools on the forest floor (1) (2) (4). The male has a high-pitched call, which it makes from the leaves of low plants on wet nights (2).

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Api dwarf toad range

Endemic to Borneo, where it is only known from the Gunung Mulu National Park in northern Sarawak, Malaysia. It possibly also occurs in neighbouring Brunei, but its presence there has not been confirmed (1).

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Api dwarf toad habitat

The Api dwarf toad has only been found in primary rainforest in areas of limestone karst, where it has an altitudinal range of 65 to 1,200 metres above sea level (1).

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Api dwarf toad status

Classified as Endangered (EN) on the IUCN Red List (1).

IUCN Red List species status – Endangered

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Api dwarf toad threats

The Api dwarf toad appears to have an extremely restricted range, meaning that even a relatively small-scale disturbance could have a devastating impact on its population. Furthermore, the extent and quality of its habitat on Borneo is continuing to decline (1).

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Api dwarf toad conservation

The Gunung Mulu National Park, home to the only known population of the Api dwarf toad, is a protected area and the most studied tropical karst area in the world. Nonetheless further survey work is needed to establish the size of the population in the park, and to determine whether this species is present in any other limestone karst areas on Borneo (1).

View information on this species at the UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre.
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Find out more

To find out more about the frogs and toads of Borneo, visit:

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Authentication

This information is awaiting authentication by a species expert, and will be updated as soon as possible. If you are able to help please contact:
arkive@wildscreen.org.uk

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Glossary

Endemic
A species or taxonomic group that is only found in one particular country or geographic area.
Larvae
Stage in an animal’s lifecycle after it hatches from the egg. Larvae are typically very different in appearance to adults; they are able to feed and move around but usually are unable to reproduce.
Primary rainforest
Rainforest that has remained undisturbed for a long time and has reached a mature condition.
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References

  1. IUCN Red List (October, 2009)
    http://www.iucnredlist.org/
  2. Dring, J. (1983) Some new frogs from Sarawak. Amphibia-Reptilia, 4: 103-115.
  3. Frogs of Borneo (October, 2009)
    http://frogsofborneo.org/Families/bufonidae/api/api.html
  4. Malkmus, R., Manthey, U., Vogel, G., Hoffmann, P. and Kosuch, J. (2002) Amphibians and reptiles of Mount Kinabalu (North Borneo). Koeltz Scientific Books, Germany..
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Image credit

Api dwarf toad  
Api dwarf toad

© Alexander Haas / imagequestmarine.com

Image Quest Marine
The Moos
Poffley End
Witney
Oxfordshire
OX29 9UW
United Kingdom
Tel: +44 (0) 1993 704050
Fax: +44 (0) 1993 779203
info@imagequestmarine.com
http://www.imagequestmarine.com/stock

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