Antarctic minke whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis)

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Antarctic minke whale surfacing to breathe
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Antarctic minke whale fact file

Antarctic minke whale description

KingdomAnimalia
PhylumChordata
ClassMammalia
OrderCetartiodactyla
FamilyBalaenopteridae
GenusBalaenoptera (1)

The Antarctic minke whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis) is one of the smallest and most abundant of the rorqual whales, the largest group of baleen whales (6). This sleekly-shaped species has a distinctly pointed head and a sickle-shaped dorsal fin located two-thirds of the way down the body (7). The upperparts of the Antarctic minke whale are dark grey and its underbelly is white, with pale streaks on the side and pale flippers (6) (7).

Up until the 1990s only one species of minke whale was recognised, the common minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata). However, the Antarctic minke whale is now considered to be a separate species, and can be distinguished from the common minke whale by its slightly larger size and the absence of a distinct white patch on the flipper (8).

Size
Average male length: 8.5 m (2)
Average female length: 9 m (2)
Maximum length: 10.7 m (2)
Weight
up to 10 tonnes (3)
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Antarctic minke whale biology

The Antarctic minke whale is usually found alone or in pairs, although aggregations of hundreds of whales can gather in feeding grounds (7) (11). This species’ diet consists mainly of krill (6), and it may in turn be preyed upon by orcas (Orcinus orca) (12).

The Antarctic minke whale reaches sexual maturity at 7 to 8 years old, and it has a lifespan of approximately 50 years (11). This species mates over the winter. The female undergoes a ten month gestation period, usually giving birth to a single calf, although twins and triplets may sometimes occur. The calf usually suckles for five months before being weaned, and will remain with the female for up to two years (9).

The Antarctic minke whale can swim at speeds of up to 20 kilometres per hour and can dive for up to 20 minutes at a time, although its dives usually last just a few minutes (9) (11). It is an inquisitive species, known to frequently approach boats (6).

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Antarctic minke whale range

Found in all oceans of the southern hemisphere, the Antarctic minke whale may also range past the equator into the northern hemisphere (7) (9). During the summer, this species gathers in high densities in Antarctic waters to feed, whilst during the winter most Antarctic minke whales move north to more tropical or temperate waters to breed. Not all Antarctic minke whales migrate, and some may overwinter in the Antarctic (7) (10).

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Antarctic minke whale habitat

The Antarctic minke whale inhabits coastal and offshore waters (2). During the summer, this species occurs in high densities near the ice edge or amongst pack ice and in polynyas (1).

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Antarctic minke whale status

Classified as Data Deficient (DD) on the IUCN Red List (1) and listed on Appendix I of CITES (4) and Appendix II of the Convention on Migratory Species (CMS or Bonn Convention) (5).

IUCN Red List species status – Data Deficient

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Antarctic minke whale threats

Commercial and scientific whaling are major threats to the Antarctic minke whale, as it is now a primary target of the Japanese whaling industry, especially as larger whale species have been depleted by hunting (6).

Like all cetaceans, Antarctic minke whales are also vulnerable to chemical and noise pollution (13).

Climate change could also be a major threat to the Antarctic minke whale. With rising temperatures, a reduction of sea ice means that the Antarctic minke whale may lose between 5 and 30 percent of ice-associated habitat in the next 40 years. This is also likely to affect Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) abundance. As the area of suitable habitat reduces and prey populations decrease, there will be an increase in competition for space and food, ultimately decreasing the population of this whale (14).

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Antarctic minke whale conservation

The Antarctic minke whale is listed on Appendix I of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) and so international trade in this species should be tightly controlled. However, Japan currently holds a reservation against this listing (1) (4). The commercial catch limit set by the International Whaling Commission (IWC) is zero, and the summer range of the Antarctic minke whale is protected by the IWC Southern Ocean Sanctuary, which prohibits catches in this area. However, these restrictions do not apply to scientific permits issued by the IWC (1). The Antarctic minke whale is also listed on Appendix II of the Convention on Migratory Species (CMS), which aims to protect migratory species throughout their range (5).

View information on this species at the UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre.
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Find out more

Find out more about the Antarctic minke whale:

More information on whales and their conservation:

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Authentication

This information is awaiting authentication by a species expert, and will be updated as soon as possible. If you are able to help please contact:
arkive@wildscreen.org.uk

This species information was authored as part of the ARKive and Universities Scheme.
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Glossary

Baleen
In some whales, the comb-like fibrous plates hanging from the upper jaw that are used to sieve food from sea water. These are often referred to as whalebone.
Cetaceans
A group comprising all whales, dolphins and porpoises.
Dorsal fin
The unpaired fin found on the back of the body of fish, or the raised structure on the back of most cetaceans (whales, dolphins and porpoises).
Gestation
The state of being pregnant; the period from conception to birth.
Pack ice
Sea ice that floats on the surface of the water. Often formed from large pieces of ice that consolidate into a single ice mass, pack ice typically moves with currents, tides and wind.
Polynya
An area of persistent open water surrounded by ice.
Rorqual
Any whale with folds or grooves of skin below the mouth, such as the humpback, blue, sei and fin whale.
Temperate
Referring to the geographical region that lies between the polar and tropical regions, characterised by a moderate climate with distinct seasons.
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References

  1. IUCN (August, 2011)
    http://www.iucnredlist.org/
  2. Perrin, W.F. and Brownell R.L. (2002) Minke whales. In: Perrin, W.F., Würsig, B. and Thewissen, J.G.M. (Eds) Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals. Academic Press, London.
  3. Antarctic Connection: Wildlife of Antarctic - minke whale (March, 2011)
    http://www.antarcticconnection.com/antarctic/wildlife/whales/minke.shtml
  4. CITES (August, 2011)
    http://www.cites.org/
  5. Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (August, 2011)
    http://www.cms.int/
  6. McGonigal, D. (2009) Antarctica: Secrets of the Southern Continent. Frances Lincoln Publishing, London.
  7. Jefferson, T.A., Webber, M.A. and Pitman, R.L. (2008) Marine Mammals of the World: A Comprehensive Guide to their Identification. Academic Press, London.
  8. Pastene, L.A., Goto, M., Kanda, N., Zerbini, A.N., Keren, D., Watanabe, K., Bessho, Y., Hasegawa, M., Nielsen, R., Larsen, F. and Palsbøll, P.J. (2007) Radiation and speciation of pelagic organisms during periods of global warming: The case of the common minke whale, Balaenoptera acutorostrata. Molecular Ecology, 16: 1481-1495.
  9. Australian Government: Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities - Antarctic minke whale (August, 2011)
    http://www.environment.gov.au/cgi-bin/sprat/public/publicspecies.pl?taxon_id=67812  
  10. Glover, K.A., Kanda, N., Haug, T., Pastene, L.A., Oien, N., Goto, M., Seliussen, B.B. and Skaug, H.J. (2010) Migration of Antarctic minke whales to the Arctic. PLoS One. 5(12): 1-6.
  11. Society for Marine Mammalogy - Antarctic minke whale (March, 2011)
    http://www.marinemammalscience.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=407&Itemid=274
  12. Pitman, R.L. and Ensor, P. (2003) Three forms of killer whales (Orchinus orcha) in Antarctic waters. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management, 5(2): 131-139.
  13. Alter, S.E., Simmonds, M.P. and Brandon, J.R. (2010) Forecasting the consequences of climate-driven shifts in human behaviour on cetaceans. Marine Policy. 34(5): 943-954.
  14. Elliott, W., Tin, T., Tynan, C., Russel, J., Casavelos, J., Ainley, D., Simmonds, M., Sohl, H. and Sutton, A. (2008) Ice Breaker: Pushing the Boundaries for Whales. WWF International, Switzerland. Available at:
    http://assets.wwfau.panda.org/downloads/mo011_ice_breaker_20jun08.pdf
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Image credit

Antarctic minke whale surfacing to breathe  
Antarctic minke whale surfacing to breathe

© Dr Meike Scheidat

Dr. Meike Scheidat
Collected during a Polarstern/AWI expedition and the "Census of Antarctic Life" project
Wageningen IMARES
Location Texel
Landsdiep 4
1797 SZ 't Horntje Postbus 167
1790 AD Den Burg
Netherlands
Tel: +31 (0) 3174 87108
Fax: +31 (0) 3174 87362
meike.scheidat@wur.nl
http://www.imares.wur.nl

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