Aders’ duiker is a protected species in both Kenya and Zanzibar (1), although the law is often poorly enforced (9). A Species Recovery Plan is in place on Zanzibar, with recommendations including improved protected status for the species, the development of a new, larger conservation area with a strict anti-hunting policy, conservation education programmes, continued population monitoring, and further research into the species’ behaviour and ecology (6). A conservation and recovery plan has also been proposed for Kenya (1). In 2000, five Aders’ duikers were translocated to the well protected, privately run conservation area of Chumbe Island, where a female was already present, but the success of this programme needs to be monitored (1) (4) (6). The possibility of a captive breeding programme is also being investigated (1) (3) (6) (11), while the use of trophy hunting as a conservation tool has been suggested, but is controversial (1) (4) (6).
The range of Aders’ duiker is now partially protected, such as within the newly designated Jozani-Chakwa Bay National Park and the nature reserve of Kiwengwa Forest in Zanzibar, as well as Arabuko-Sokoke National Park in Kenya, part of which is a strict nature reserve (1). Intensive fieldwork has been performed in Arabuko-Sokoke by the Kenyan Wildlife Service, including population surveys and monitoring of illegal human activity, while on Zanzibar a community wildlife management programme commenced in 1995, in an effort to reduce antelope hunting to more sustainable levels and to provide alternative income-generating projects (1) (6). The discovery of Aders’ duikers in Dodori Forest National Reserve in 2004 raised hopes that additional populations may yet be discovered in other areas (4) (10), but further survey work is needed to determine the current status of the species there, as this isolated population may be on the brink of extinction (1). Unfortunately, unless urgent conservation efforts can reverse its decline, this small, attractive antelope remains at high risk of becoming extinct in the not too distant future (1) (4) (6) (11).